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Practice_incident management事件管理实践

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发表于 2020-4-14 18:15:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总






关键信息

事件管理实践的目的是通过尽快恢复正常的服务运营来最大程度地减少负面的影响事件。


正常的服务运营通常是在服务级别协议(SLA)或服务质量规范的其他形式中定义的,这是服务提供者在内部达成的协议。规范可以包含比最初与客户达成的协议更多的质量准则。因此,事件管理实践包括恢复正常的运维服务和资源,即使服务使用者看不到它们的失效或偏差。在这种情况下,普通运维在配置项目(CI)或服务技术规范中定义。但是,如果没有记录的正常运维的规范,则可以使用专家意见评估状况的资源和服务。如果需要,可以使用事件管理实践来纠正有故障的资源或服务。


事件管理实践是服务管理的基本元素。服务的快速恢复是用户和客户满意度中的关键因素,服务提供者的信誉以及组织在服务关系中创建的价值。


2.2        术语和概念        


事件
服务的计划外中断或服务的质量减少。


事件管理实践确保将计划外的服务不可用或降级的时间减至最少,从而减少对用户的负面影响。有两个主要因素可以实现这一点:早期的事件检测和快速恢复正常的运维。


借助高效,高效的流程,自动化和供应商关系以及技术精湛且积极进取的专家团队,可以快速发生检测和解决事件。服务管理四维模型的资源被合并以形成事件管理实践。


一些系统和服务演示了包括所谓典型事件在内的操作模式。这些可能与已知的错误相关,例如缺乏兼容性或不正确的用户行为模式。服务提供者通常将事件模型定义为优化处理重复事件或类似事件以及解决。应用程序经过验证和测试的解决方案可帮助快速,有效地解决事件,并且通常可以带来更好的结果。





事件模型的创建和使用对于事件管理实践中的活动很重要。这将在第3节中进一步描述。
尽管有些事件在服务运营和消费方面的影响相对较低,但其他事件却给服务消费者和服务提供者带来了严重后果。这些被称为重大事件,需要特别注意。




定义:重大事件
具有重要业务影响的事件,需要立即协调的解决。


重要的业务影响并不是重大事件的唯一特征。例如,当有多个为高可用性设计的系统和服务时,单个故障不太可能导致严重的业务影响。故障将迅速且通常是自动检测并修复。重大事件通常与更高级别的复杂性相关。例如,如果多个看似微不足道的事件同时发生,则它可能会升级并在服务使用者上拥有影响。诸如此类的复杂事件需要对管理和解决采用特殊方法。实施模型来管理所有事件将是有益的,即使重大事件很少重复发生且通常具有不同的性质。重大事件的模型可能包括:


●        清晰的准则,以区分重大事件与灾难及其他事件
●        特别负责的协调员,有时也称为重大事件经理(MIM)
●        创建了一个专门的临时团队来调查和解决重大事件
●        其他专用资源(包括预算);例如,与第三方专家进行紧急咨询或采购组件
●        特殊的调查方法(例如,全功能团队)
●        与用户,客户,监管机构,媒体和其他利益相关者进行通信的约定模型
●        评审和后续的活动达成一致的规程。




定义:变通方案
减少或消除事件或问题的影响的解决方案,而该解决方案尚未提供完整的解决。一些解决方法可以减少发生事故的可能性。



有时,可能找不到事件的系统解决方案。在这些情况下,服务提供者可以应用变通方案。
解决方法迅速将复原,服务更改为可接受的质量。但是,变通办法可能会增加技术债务,并可能在将来导致新的事件。问题管理实践可用于减少事件解决方法创建的技术债务。在许多情况下,了解事件的原因可以帮助找到最佳解决方案。




定义:技术债务
待办项的总返工是通过选择解决方法而不是需要更长时间的系统解决方案来完成的。


About this document
This document provides practical guidance for software development and management. It is split into five main sections, covering:
●        general information about the practice
●        the processes and activities of software development and management and their roles in the service value chain
●        the organizations and people involved in software development and management
●        the information and technology supporting software development and management
●        considerations for partners and suppliers for software development and management.


1.1 ITIL® 4 QUALIFICATION SCHEME        
Selected content from this document is examinable as a part of the following syllabuses:
●        ITIL Specialist: Create, Deliver and Support
●        ITIL Specialist: High-velocity IT
Please refer to the respective syllabus documents for details.

General information
2.1        PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION        


The software development and management practice focuses on the development and management of application software. However, many of the principles are also applicable to the software that is part of the infrastructure on which applications are developed and managed.
Software engineering is increasingly important for infrastructure and platform management, for example in the application of Infrastructure as Code. This concept uses machine-readable definition files to manage and provision IT infrastructure and platforms, instead of physically configuring hardware components.


Software development and management covers the whole lifecycle of applications. This can vary from several months to several decades and is on average 10 to 15 years. From an economic perspective, historically on average 20% of the total costs of ownership of an application was spent on development as opposed to management, and 20% of software management costs is related to corrective maintenance.


In the modern world bigger shares of an application’s total costs of ownership shifts to development. Since constant changes become an integral part of the application lifecycle, all maintenance activities can become a part of development and are usually not referred to as maintenance.


2.2        TERMS AND CONCEPTS        

The trend to outsource software development services has been reversed in recent years, with many organizations taking critical and strategic development back in-house. This includes banks, insurance and retail companies.
  
With the rate of change modern services are experiencing, services become ever-changing. It is usual for the modern application to be modified throughout its lifecycle. This means that all the activities which used to form maintenance are now part of development process.
Software management is a broader term, potentially referring to application strategy and planning, operation, safekeeping of the application artefacts and application decommissioning.


The purpose of the practice states that applications should meet internal and external stakeholder needs, in terms of functionality, reliability, maintainability, compliance, and auditability. All the terms mentioned describe software quality.
  
Quick-fixes are often preferred to proper but time-consuming changes. The high rate of change in software may lead to an accumulated amount of rework that will have to be done at some point, known as a technical debt.


For many practitioners involved in software development and management the main watershed lies in how Agile the chosen software development lifecycle (SDLC) model is.

Software development and management

Agile and Scrum approaches are a combination of incremental and iterative, focusing on close collaboration with the owner of the application in order to obtain fast feedback and achieve quick development of small increments from which the owner can derive value.

DevOps approaches further improve throughput by speeding up the transition from coding to run/use, using techniques such as continuous integration/continuous delivery to (partially) automate the deployment pipeline.


Many Agile approaches use ‘definition of done’ as a tool to agree the set of criteria to be met before the product or product increment/backlog item is considered done.








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