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Practice_Software development and management ITIL 4软件开发和管理 中文版【初译】

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发表于 2020-4-14 18:07:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总






一般信息

2.1        目的和描述        


软件开发和管理实践专注于应用程序软件的开发和管理。但是,许多原理也适用于作为开发和管理应用程序的基础结构的一部分的软件。


软件工程对于基础设施和平台管理越来越重要,例如在基础设施即代码的应用程序中。此概念使用机器可读的定义文件来管理和配置IT基础设施和平台,而不是物理配置硬件组件。


软件开发和管理涵盖了整个生命周期应用程序。这可能从几个月到几十年不等,平均为10到15年。从经济学的角度来看,从历史上看,应用程序的总体拥有成本中平均有20%花费在开发上,而不是管理,而软件管理的花费中有20%与纠正性维护有关。


在现代世界中,应用程序的总拥有成本中的较大份额转移到开发。由于不断的变化成为应用程序生命周期不可或缺的一部分,因此所有维护活动都可以成为开发的一部分,通常不称为维护。
2.2        术语和概念        


软件是业务的关键部分。它可以通过技术使能业务服务为客户提供价值。由于大多数现代服务不是软件辅助,而是软件使能,因此软件开发变得至关重要。



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近年来,软件开发服务外包的趋势发生了逆转,许多组织将关键的和战略性的开发收回内部。这包括银行,保险和零售公司。
  
随着变更的普及,现代服务不断变化。通常在整个生命周期中都对现代应用程序进行修改。这意味着所有用于构成维护的活动现在都是开发流程的一部分。
管理软件是一个广义术语,可能是指应用程序策略以及规划,运维,应用程序制品和应用程序退役的安全性。


实践的目的在于,应用程序应在功能,可靠性,可维护性,合规性和可审核性方面满足内部和外部利益干系人需求的要求。提及的所有术语均描述软件质量。
  
快速修复通常比适当但耗时的更改更可取。变更在软件中的高使用率可能会导致一定数量的返工,这些返工需要在某个时间点进行,称为技术债务。


对于参与软件开发和管理的许多从业人员而言,主要的分水岭在于所选软件开发生命周期(SDLC)模型的敏捷程度。


About this document
This document provides practical guidance for software development and management. It is split into five main sections, covering:
●        general information about the practice
●        the processes and activities of software development and management and their roles in the service value chain
●        the organizations and people involved in software development and management
●        the information and technology supporting software development and management
●        considerations for partners and suppliers for software development and management.


1.1 ITIL® 4 QUALIFICATION SCHEME        
Selected content from this document is examinable as a part of the following syllabuses:
●        ITIL Specialist: Create, Deliver and Support
●        ITIL Specialist: High-velocity IT
Please refer to the respective syllabus documents for details.

General information
2.1        PURPOSE AND DESCRIPTION        


The software development and management practice focuses on the development and management of application software. However, many of the principles are also applicable to the software that is part of the infrastructure on which applications are developed and managed.


Software engineering is increasingly important for infrastructure and platform management, for example in the application of Infrastructure as Code. This concept uses machine-readable definition files to manage and provision IT infrastructure and platforms, instead of physically configuring hardware components.
Software development and management covers the whole lifecycle of applications. This can vary from several months to several decades and is on average 10 to 15 years. From an economic perspective, historically on average 20% of the total costs of ownership of an application was spent on development as opposed to management, and 20% of software management costs is related to corrective maintenance.


In the modern world bigger shares of an application’s total costs of ownership shifts to development. Since constant changes become an integral part of the application lifecycle, all maintenance activities can become a part of development and are usually not referred to as maintenance.


2.2        TERMS AND CONCEPTS        


Software is a crucial part of business. It can provide value to customers through technology- enabled business services. Software development becomes critical as most modern services become not softwareaided , but softwareenabled                                                                                     .



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The trend to outsource software development services has been reversed in recent years, with many organizations taking critical and strategic development back in-house. This includes banks, insurance and retail companies.
  
With the rate of change modern services are experiencing, services become ever-changing. It is usual for the modern application to be modified throughout its lifecycle. This means that all the activities which used to form maintenance are now part of development process.
Software management is a broader term, potentially referring to application strategy and planning, operation, safekeeping of the application artefacts and application decommissioning.


The purpose of the practice states that applications should meet internal and external stakeholder needs, in terms of functionality, reliability, maintainability, compliance, and auditability. All the terms mentioned describe software quality.
  
Quick-fixes are often preferred to proper but time-consuming changes. The high rate of change in software may lead to an accumulated amount of rework that will have to be done at some point, known as a technical debt.


For many practitioners involved in software development and management the main watershed lies in how Agile the chosen software development lifecycle (SDLC) model is.

申明:
本文档由长河(微信achotsao)在机译的基础上经初步整理而成,精细化翻译工作正由ITIL先锋论坛组织的ITIL专家团队进行之中,预计将于2020年年底之前全部完成。需要下载最终翻译版本请关注微信公众号:IT管理精英圈,或访问www.itil4hub.cn  or  www.itilxf.com

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