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Practice_Relationship management 关系管理实践

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匿名  发表于 2020-4-14 22:00:03 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总






关系管理实践的目的是在战略和战术层面上建立和培养组织及其利益相关者之间的联系。它包括与利益相关者之间的关系的识别,分析,监控和持续改进。



关系管理实践专注于确保组织内以及组织与外部方(包括:客户,用户,合作伙伴,供应商等)之间的成功关系。为了使之成为可能,此实践旨在建立一种关系和关系管理的通用方法,该方法可以在组织上采用和遵循。这种方法是组织的文化的重要组件。


在组织的文化的背景中,关系管理实践可以包括:
●        共同或共同认可的目标
●        不怪合作和协作
●        持续学习
●        开放透明的沟通
●        预防和调解冲突。


关系管理实践可以解决个人,团队或更大利益相关者群体之间的关系。利益相关者的识别,利益相关者及其利益也是实践的重要方面。利益相关者可能包括:


●        内部团队和个人团队成员
●        管理者
●        高管
●        审核员和其他控制
●        股东
●        顾客
●        使用者
●        赞助商
●        投资者和股东
●        政府和监管机构
●        竞争者
●        合作伙伴和供应商
●        各种社会团体
●        专业社区。


关系管理的内部和外部实践都应解决所涉及的个人和群体之间的文化差异以及其他差异性因素,包括关系是否为:
●        商业或非商业
●        正式或非正式
●        团体或个人
●        直接或间接
●        专业或个人
●        自愿或强制
        相等或分层。


基于这些因素和其他因素,关系管理有多种类型,组织针对特定情况采用最相关和有效的方法。






关键信息


任何类型的关系都是人与人之间的交互,因此,当人们彼此联系时,应该考虑人的本性和价值观。



关系类型


人们以不同的方式与组织内的其他人进行交互并建立联系。大多数人可能参与了几种关系,扮演着一系列可能相互冲突的角色。组织是由几个较小的系统组成的复杂系统。每个人或团体都参与几个子系统,每个团体本身构成一个系统。


组织中可能会注意到几种关系。由于组织复杂,某些关系类型将重叠,并且在这些类型之间划分清晰的界限并不容易。但是,能够区分并了解构建和环境所必需的关系类型是有用的,在环境中,关系服务于组织目标并不断发展。


个人和团队之间的关系
永久和临时团队构建关系中的个人受他们各自的文化以及其团队和组织的文化影响。每种关系都由关于交换,公平,亲密,承诺,信任,协调和沟通的隐性和显式规范和期望所驱动。


社会交流理论认为,只要奖励和成本令人满意,个人就只会追求关系。但是,关系的奖励和成本取决于关系的类型。关系可以描述为公共关系或交流关系,这两种类型定义了关系合作伙伴之间的规范和期望差异。


交换关系是事务性的且面向功用。通常假定工作场所和业务之间的关系是交换关系的示例。


社区关系通常会响应需求提供好处(例如,通过提供帮助,礼物或提供情感支持),并表达对其他人的真诚关注。在公共关系中,不期望立即交换,并且合伙人没有义务回报所获得的利益。朋友和家人之间的关系通常是社区关系的例子。


同样,团队之间的关系可能会证明合作或协作的功能。


X.Hattko对公司与公司之间的关系进行的定性研究1 发现存在三种类型的工作关系:
●        业务助理
●        业务朋友
●        个人朋友。
三种关系类型在合作伙伴之间披露的信息量,亲密程度以及他们之间的信任度方面有所不同。




The purpose of the relationship management practice is to establish and nurture the links between the organization and its stakeholders at strategic and tactical levels. It includes the identification, analysis, monitoring, and continual improvement of relationships with and between stakeholders.


The relationship management practice is focused on ensuring successful relationships within an organization, as well as between an organization and external parties, including: customers, users, partners, suppliers, and others. To make this possible, this practice aims to establish a common approach to relationships and relationship management that can be adopted and followed across the organization. This approach is an important component of an organization’s culture.


In the context of an organization’s culture, the relationship management practice may include:
●        shared or mutually recognized goals
●        no-blame cooperation and collaboration
●        continuous learning
●        open and transparent communications
●        conflict prevention and mediation.


The relationship management practice can address the relationships between individuals, teams, or larger groups of stakeholders. The identification and management of stakeholders and their interests is also an important aspect of this practice. Stakeholders may include:
●        internal teams and individual team members
●        managers
●        executives
●        auditors and other controls
●        shareholders
●        customers
●        users
●        sponsors
●        investors and shareholders
●        governments and regulators
●        competitors
●        partners and suppliers
●        various social groups
●        professional communities.


Both internal and external relationship management practices should address the cultural differences between the individuals and groups involved, as well as other differentiating factors, including whether the relationship is:
●        commercial or non-commercial
●        formal or informal
●        group or individual
●        direct or indirect
●        professional or personal
●        voluntary or compulsory
●        equal or hierarchical.

There are multiple typologies for relationship management based on these and other factors, and organizations adopt the most relevant and effective approaches for particular situations.

Key message
Any type of relationship is an interaction between people, therefore, human nature and values should be accounted for whenever people connect with each other.




Types of relationships


People interact and relate to others within organizations in different ways. Most people are likely involved in several relationships, performing a range of roles that can conflict with one another. Organizations are complex systems which consist of several smaller systems. Every person or group participates in several subsystems and every group itself forms a system.


There are a few types of relationships that may be noticed within an organization. As organizations are complex, some relationship types will overlap and it is not easy to arrange clear boundaries between these types. Yet, it is useful to be able to distinguish and be aware of the relationship types necessary to build an environment where relationships serve organizational goals and continually evolve.


Relationship between individuals and teams
Individuals in both permanent and temporary teams build relationships that are influenced by their individual cultures, as well as the cultures of their team and organization. Every type of relationship is driven by implicit and explicit norms and expectations regarding exchange, equity, intimacy, commitment, trust, coordination, and communication.


Social exchange theory argues that individuals only pursue relationships for as long as the relationship is satisfactory in terms of the rewards and cost. Yet, the reward and cost of the relationship depends on the type of relationship. Relationships can be characterized as either communal or exchange oriented, and these two types define differences in norms and expectations between the relationship partners.


Exchange relationships are transactional and utility-oriented. It is commonly assumed that workplace and business relationships are examples of an exchange relationship.


Communal relationships usually provide benefits in response to needs (for example by offering help, gifts or providing emotional support) and to express a sincere concern for the other person. In communal relationships, no immediate exchange is expected, and the partners are not obliged to reciprocate a benefit that they have received. Relationships between friends and family members are usually examples of communal relationships.


Similarly, relationships between teams may demonstrate features of cooperation or collaboration.


A qualitative study of firm-to-firm relationships by D. Haytko1 found that there were three types of work relationships:
●        business associate
●        business friend
●        personal friend.

The three relationship types vary in the amount of information disclosed between the partners, the resulting level of intimacy, and the trust between them.





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