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Practice_ProblemManagement 问题管理实践

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发表于 2020-4-14 22:21:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总




问题管理实践的目的是为了减少影响的可能性,
通过确定事件的实际和潜在原因并管理变通办法和已知错误来解决事件。


没有服务是完美的。每个服务都有可能导致事故的错误或缺陷。错误可能源自任何服务管理四维模型。例如,第三方合同中的错误与组件失效一样可能导致事件。在服务上线之前会发现许多错误,然后在设计,开发或测试期间将其解决。但是,有些仍未被发现,将继续使用运行环境,这可能会引起事故。为了管理运行环境中出现的错误,组织开发了问题管理实践。
实践旨在识别和分析组织产品中的错误,以最大程度地减少对所提供服务的负面影响。


2.2        术语和概念        
可能导致(或已经引起)事件的错误称为问题。


定义:问题
一个或多个事件的原因或潜在原因。


问题管理实践的三个阶段
问题管理实践具有三个不同的阶段,如图片2.1中所示。


  问题识别
问题识别有两种主要方法。首先,调查已经发生的事件的原因。此方法首先了解症状,然后了解原因。它旨在防止事件再次发生,也可能有助于解决公开事件。之所以称为被动式问题管理是因为它是对事件的反应。
第二种方法是在导致问题发生之前识别问题,评估相关风险,然后对优化进行响应,以最小化事件发生的可能性和/或影响。这称为主动问题管理,基于有关问题的信息,尤其是运行环境中可能存在的问题。信息来源可能包括:
●        供应商通知其产品中的漏洞
●        开发人员,设计人员或测试人员在使用下一版本时发现实时版本中的错误
●        用户和专家社区分享其他组织的经验
●        基础架构的监控,发现系统性能或绩效中尚未视为事件的偏差
●        技术审核和其他评估。


被动式还是主动?
问题管理实践始终是被动式所遇到的问题:它不能防止它们第一次出现。主动/ 被动式的区别是指问题调查与事件如何相关:
●        主动问题管理有助于防止首次发生事件
●        被动式问题管理有助于防止事件再次发生,并可能有助于解决未解决的事件。




   问题控制
问题的标识导致问题记录的注册。可能存在待办项问题要分析。记录的问题根据其最初的分类和优先级进行分析。问题分析之后,问题的初始分类很可能是变更,尤其是对于基于事件(症状)信息注册的问题。


定义
任务优先级任务相对于其他任务的重要性。具有更高优先级的任务应首先处理。优先级在待办项中所有任务的背景中定义。优先级性能或绩效选择无法在待办项中为所有任务分配资源时首先要处理的任务。


问题控制专注于问题的分析。在被动式问题管理中,问题分析使用有关生产架构和配置的信息来识别可能引起相关事件的配置项目(CI)。该分析不限于CI,还包括其他因素,例如用户行为,人为错误和规程错误。
主动问题管理通常从更好地了解所有服务管理四维模型的CI和其他组件(可能引起事件)开始。例如,如果供应商将其软件中的脆弱性通知组织,则问题控制的任务是确定组织如何使用此软件,以便评估与脆弱性相关的风险以及所提供服务的潜在影响。




The purpose of the problem management practice is to reduce the likelihood and impact of
incidents by identifying actual and potential causes of incidents, and managing workarounds and known errors.


No service is perfect. Every service has errors or flaws which can cause incidents. Errors may originate in any of the four dimensions of service management. For example, a mistake in a third-party contract is as likely to cause an incident as a component failure. Many errors are identified before a service goes live and are then resolved during design, development, or testing. However, some will remain undiscovered and will proceed to the live environment, and these may cause incidents. To manage errors that have arisen in the live environment, organizations have developed the problem management practice.
The practice aims to identify and analyse errors in the organization’s products in order to minimize their negative impacts on the services being provided.


TERMS AND CONCEPTS        
Errors that may cause (or have already caused) incidents are called problems.


Definition: Problem
A cause, or potential cause, of one or more incidents.


Figure 2.1 The three phases of the problem management practice
The problem management practice has three distinct phases, as shown in Figure 2.1.


Problem identification
There are two main approaches to problem identification. First, investigating the causes of incidents that have already happened. This approach starts with understanding the symptoms and then the causes. It aims to prevent incidents recurring, and may also contribute to the resolution of open incidents. This is known as reactive problem management because it is a reaction to incidents.

The second approach is to identify problems before they cause incidents, assess the related risks, and optimize the response with the aim of minimizing the probability and/or the impact of incidents. This is known as proactive problem management and is based on information about problems, specifically those that might be found in the live environment. The information sources may include:
●        vendors informing about vulnerabilities in their products
●        developers, designers, or testers discovering errors in live versions while working with the next versions
●        user and specialist communities sharing their experiences of other organizations
●        the monitoring of the infrastructure, discovering deviations in systems performance that do not yet qualify as incidents
●        technical audits and other assessments.


Reactive or proactive?
The problem management practice is always reactive to problems: it does not prevent them from occurring the first time. The proactive/reactive distinction refers to how problem investigation relates to incidents:

●        proactive problem management helps to prevent incidents from occurring the first time
●        reactive problem management helps to prevent incidents from recurring and may helpto resolve open incidents.










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