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Practice_Service Design 服务设计实践

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匿名  发表于 2020-4-14 22:55:44 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总






如果产品和服务或实践的设计不正确,则它们不一定会满足客户,需求或促进价值的创建。如果它们在没有适当的架构,接口或控件的情况下发展,则它们将无法交付组织及其内部和外部客户的整体愿景和需求。



即使精心设计了生产或服务,也很难以有效且有弹性的方式提供解决方案来解决组织和客户的需求的问题。
因此,重要的是要考虑服务设计的迭代和增量方法,以确保引入实时运维的产品和服务能够不断适应组织及其客户不断发展的需求。


如果未形成服务设计,则产品和服务的运行成本可能很高,并且易于失效。这会浪费资源,并且生产或服务不会以客户为中心或不是整体设计的。没有服务设计,要实现需求和客户的期望就非常困难。


对于服务设计的所有方面采用整体的,以结果为导向的方法,并且在更改或修改服务设计的任何单个元素时,都应考虑所有其他方面,这一点很重要。因此,服务设计与整个组织的服务价值系统(SVS)的协调方面至关重要。
设计新的或更改的生产或服务不应孤立进行,而应考虑将影响用于以下方面:
●        其他产品和服务
●        所有相关方,包括客户,用户和供应商
●        现有架构
●        所需的技术
●        服务管理实践
●        必要的度量和指标。


考虑这些因素不仅将确保设计解决服务的职能型元素,而且还将确保管理和运行的的要求被视为设计的基本组成部分,而不是事后考虑。


当生产或服务由于退役而更改时,也应使用服务设计。除非精心计划了生产/ 服务的淘汰,否则可能会对客户或组织造成意外的负面影响。


并非每个变更到生产或服务都需要相同级别的服务设计实现价值。每个变更,无论多么小,都需要一定程度的设计工作,但是确保成功所需的实现价值的规模会因一种变更类型而异。
组织必须定义变更的每个类别要求的设计实现价值等级,并确保组织上的每个人都清楚。

服务设计确保创建的产品和服务:
●        面向业务和客户
●        是为用户创建的,具有良好的体验
●        对成本有效
●        满足组织和任何外部客户的信息和物理安全要求
●        灵活,适应性强,但在交付时使用符合目的
●        可以吸收变更的体积和速度不断增长的需求
●        满足持续运营对组织和客户日益增长的需求
●        在风险的可接受水平上进行管理和操作。
在组织承受着巨大压力的情况下,可能会试着“偷工减料”协调服务设计和活动的做法和相关各方,或者完全忽略它们。应该避免这种情况,因为集成和协调对于所交付产品和服务的整体质量至关重要。


2.2        术语和概念


2.2.1        设计思维

设计思维可被视为精益和敏捷方法的补充方法。它利用逻辑,想象力,直觉和系统对探索可能性的思考,并创造使客户受益的预期结果。


设计思维包括对多种活动的迭代方法,例如:
●        灵感和同理心通过直接观察人们以及他们如何与产品和服务互动或与之互动,以及确定人们如何与其他解决方案进行不同的互动来进行启发和同情。
●        构想结合了发散和收敛的思想。发散性思维是指供应具有不同,独特或变体思想的能力,而聚合性思维是能够找到给定问题首选解决方案的能力。发散性思维可确保探索许多可能的解决方案,而趋同性思维可将这些范围缩小为最终的首选解决方案。
●        原型在何处及早测试,迭代和完善想法。原型帮助
收集反馈和改进的想法。原型允许服务设计人员更好地了解新解决方案的优缺点,从而加快了流程的创新速度。
●        实现概念栩栩如生。这应该与
所有相关的服务管理惯例和其他各方。可以采用敏捷方法以迭代方式开发和实施解决方案。
●        评价与其他实践(包括项目管理和发布管理)一起,可以测量生产的实际性能或绩效或服务的实现。
确保满足客户或用户体验旅程,并找到改进点的任何机会。
设计思维是多学科团队的最佳选择;因为它平衡了客户,技术,组织,合作伙伴和供应商的观点,所以它具有很高的集成度,与组织的SVS保持一致,并且可以成为数字化转型的关键促进因素。

2.2.2        客户和用户体验
服务设计的CX和UX方面对于确保产品和服务为客户和组织提供所需的价值至关重要。CX 设计专注于管理整个CX的各个方面,包括时间,质量,成本,可靠性和效果。UX专门研究生产或服务的易用性以及用户与之交互的方式。
服务体验表示认识到服务消费者价值是服务,它基于服务的“技术性” 输出以及从人的角度如何感知的结合。这意味着服务提供者必须越来越多地了解消费者的需求,以及他们在处置上拥有的“资源”才能共同创建价值。不会被动接收服务:它也需要消费者的努力。服务提供者必须动态响应消费者的行为,并尽可能地适应“例外”。消费者也是如此。


精益用户体验(精益UX)设计是一种思维方式,文化和包含精益- Agile方法的流程。它以最小可行增量实现功能,并通过根据成果假设测量结果来确定成功。在使用Agile 开发方法的项目上工作时,精益UX非常有用。目的的核心是尽可能早地获得反馈,以便可以用来做出快速决策。


精益UX的典型问题可能包括以下内容:
●        该生产/ 服务的客户是谁?它的用途是什么?
●        什么时候使用,在什么情况下使用?
●        最重要的功能是什么?
●        最大的风险是什么?
每个问题可能有一个以上的答案,这会带来比实际可能更多的假设。然后,团队将根据它们给组织及其客户带来的风险来对这些假设进行优先级排序。


2.2.3        服务设计软件包


可以为每个新的IT服务生成一个服务设计包(SDP),并定期或在重大更改和IT服务淘汰期间进行更新。
服务设计软件包是通过服务管理实践和客户之间的交互交付的。服务设计包的目的是确保服务的所有方面都得到考虑和记录。


SDP的概念对于ITIL来说并不陌生。但是,从价值流的角度来看,其重要性已大大提高。无论采用哪种交付方式或服务提供的范围,SDP都将需求连接到价值。其目的是提供以下内容的明确声明:

对于设计师和类似的消费者来说,“看起来不错”;它必须与IT服务的风险建模结合使用,因为最好的SDP灵活且适应各种准则。
为了使SDP生效,它应该处理服务的所有四个维度,并专注于客户和用户体验。这在图片2.1中显示。
图片2.1- 服务设计包的高级架构


2.2.3.1定义SDP


SDP的定义需要一个整体的视图,因为它实际上是其他实践的表示层。服务设计实践不一定定义SDP的所有元素,而是协调和合并其他实践所有者的预期结果。


有几个关键的注意事项定义SDP:
●        设计并记录了服务设计策略,包括商定数量的不同服务设计软件包。服务设计策略需求将与组织的风险胃口同时开发,因为两者必须内在联系。
●        确保所有服务管理四维模型都包含在服务设计封装中,这一点很重要。
•        组织和人员:运营模式并支持矩阵型,培训需求
•        信息和技术:工具,监控,数据管理和脆弱性
•        合作伙伴和供应商:适当的合同,服务集成,关键成功因素
•        价值流和流程:对IT服务的关键路径分析,加快了流程的速度。
●        开发一个模板,以标识所需信息的类型。例如,说明,指导说明和成果参数。
●        契动与相关的利益相关者就服务设计包的级别同意每个实践的参数。
●        制定沟通和培训策略,以确保服务设计软件包可以有效地嵌入到流程的设计和配置服务中。
●        将使用服务设计软件包的流程嵌入与设计/ 转换,获取或构建相关的价值流中,并提供/支持。这将包括活动,例如:
•        设计检查– 完工定义/需求分析,客户/ 用户体验
        转换检查– 功效注意事项
•        与工具中嵌入的服务保护有关的待办项项。


服务设计需求将被嵌入到价值流中,以用于引入新的或更改中的服务。
对于SDP的每个元素,架构师将提供合规性的证据。在受影响的利益相关者不同意服务的地方,任何出现的问题都需要解决。这可能涉及到评审,其中在设计中使用了技术和服务设计模式,并且风险调查表上的原始答案是否适当地考虑了IT服务的背景和业务运营的影响。这将是一个迭代的流程,具体取决于存在的问题数量以及所提议的解决在多大程度上使涉众满意。





If products and services, or practices are not designed properly, they will not necessarily fulfil customer needs or facilitate value creation. If they evolve without proper architecture, interfaces or controls, they are less able to deliver the overall vision and needs of the organization and its internal and external customers.
Even when a product or service is well designed, delivering a solution that addresses the needs of both the organization and customer in a cost-effective and resilient way can be difficult.


Therefore, it is important to consider iterative and incremental approaches to service design, which can ensure that products and services introduced to live operation can continually adapt in alignment with the evolving needs of the organization and its customers.


If service design is not formed, products and services can be quite expensive to run and prone to failure; this results in wasted resources and the product or service not being customer-centred or designed holistically. Without service design, it is extremely hard to achieve the needs and expectations of customers.
It is important that a holistic, results-driven approach to all aspects of service design is adopted, and that when changing or amending any of the individual elements of a service design, all other aspects are considered. Therefore, the coordination aspect of service design with the whole organization’s service value system (SVS) is essential.


Designing a new or changed product or service should not be done in isolation, but should consider the impact it will have on:


●        other products and services
●        all relevant parties, including customers, users, and suppliers
●        the existing architectures
●        the required technology
●        the service management practices
●        the necessary measurements and metrics.


Considering these factors will not only ensure that the design addresses the functional elements of the service, but also that the management and operational requirements are regarded as a fundamental part of the design, not added as an afterthought.


Service design should also be used when the product or service is changing due to its retirement. Unless the retirement of a product/service is carefully planned, it could cause unexpected negative effects on customers or the organization.


Not every change to a product or service will require the same level of service design activity. Every change, no matter how small, will need some degree of design work, but the scale of the activity necessary to ensure success will vary greatly from one change type to another.


Organizations must define what level of design activity is required for each category of change and ensure that everyone within the organization is clear on this criteria.

Service design ensures that the products and services created:
●        are business- and customer-oriented, focused, and driven
●        are created for users to have a good experience
●        are cost-effective
●        meet the information and physical security requirements of the organization and any external customers
●        are flexible and adaptable, yet fit for purpose at the point of delivery
●        can absorb an ever-increasing demand in the volume and speed of change
●        meet increasing organizational and customer demands for continuous operation
●        are managed and operated to an acceptable level of risk.


With many pressures on the organization, there can be a temptation to ‘cut corners’ on the coordination of practices and relevant parties for service design activities, or to ignore them completely. This should be avoided, as integration and coordination are essential to the overall quality of the products and services that are delivered.


2.2        TERMS AND CONCEPTS


2.2.1        Design thinking



Design thinking can be viewed as a complementary approach to Lean and Agile methodologies. It draws upon logic, imagination, intuition, and system thinking to explore possibilities and to create desired outcomes that benefit customers.


Design thinking includes an iterative approach to a variety of activities, such as:
●        Inspiration and empathy Through direct observation of people and how they work or interact with products and services, as well as identifying how they might interact differently with other solutions.
●        Ideation Combines divergent and convergent thinking. Divergent thinking is the ability to offer different, unique, or variant ideas, while convergent thinking is the ability to find the preferred solution to a given problem. Divergent thinking ensures that many possible solutions are explored, and convergent thinking narrows these down to a final preferred solution.
●        Prototyping Where ideas are tested early, iterated, and refined. A prototype helps
to gather feedback and improve an idea. Prototypes speed up the process of innovation by allowing service designers to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of new solutions.
●        Implementation Concepts are brought to life. This should be coordinated with
all relevant service management practices and other parties. Agile methodology can be employed to develop and implement the solution in an iterative way.
●        Evaluation In conjunction with other practices, including project management and release management, this measures the actual performance of product or service implementation to
ensure acceptance criteria are met, and to find any opportunities for improvement.
Design thinking is best applied by multi-disciplinary teams; because it balances the perspectives of customers, technology, the organization, partners, and suppliers, it is highly integrative, aligns well with the organization’s SVS, and can be a key enabler of digital transformation.

2.2.2        Customer and user experience


The CX and UX aspects of service design are essential to ensure products and services deliver the desired value for customers and the organization. CX design is focused on managing every aspect of the complete CX, including time, quality, cost, reliability, and effectiveness. UX looks specifically at the ease of use of the product or service and how the user interacts with it.


Service experience refers to the recognition that service consumers value a service that is based on a combination of the ‘technical’ output of the service and how it is perceived from a human perspective. This means that the service provider has to be increasingly aware of the consumers’ requirements, and the ‘resources’ that they have at their disposal to cocreate value. Service is not passively received: it also requires effort from the consumer.


The service provider has to dynamically respond to the consumers’ behaviour and accommodate ‘exceptions’ as best as possible. The same applies to the consumer.
Lean user experience (Lean UX) design is a mindset, a culture, and a process that embraces Lean– Agile methods. It implements functionality in minimum viable increments and determines success by measuring results against an outcome hypothesis. Lean UX is incredibly useful when working on projects where Agile development methods are used. The core objective is to focus on obtaining feedback as early as possible so that it can be used to make quick decisions.


Typical questions for Lean UX might include the following:
●        Who are the customers of this product/service and what will it be used for?
●        When is it used and under what circumstances?
●        What will be the most important functionality?
●        What are the biggest risks?


There may be more than one answer to each question, which creates a greater number of assumptions than it might be practical to handle. The team will then prioritize these assumptions by the risks they represent to the organization and its customers.


2.2.3        Service design packages


A service design package (SDP) may be produced for each new IT Service, and updated periodically, or during major changes and IT Service Retirement.


Service design packages are delivered through interaction between service management practices and the customer. The aim of the service design package is to ensure all aspects of the service have been considered and documented.


The concept of SDPs is not new to ITIL. However, the importance is significantly raised when viewed from the perspective of value streams. An SDP connects demand to value, regardless of delivery methodology or scope of service provision. Its purpose is to provide a clear statement of

‘what good looks like’ to designers and similar consumers; it must be used in conjunction with risk modelling of IT services as the best SDPs are flexible and adaptable depending on various criteria.
For an SDP to be effective, it should address all four dimensions of the service and be focused on customer and user experience. This is shown in figure 2.1.


Figure 2.1- High-level architecture of a service design package


2.2.3.1 Defining an SDP
The definition of an SDP requires a holistic view since it is, in effect, the presentation layer for other practices. The service design practice does not necessarily define all the elements of the SDP, but rather coordinates and consolidates the expected outcomes from other practice owners.


There are several key considerations to define an SDP:
●        Design and document a service design strategy, including the agreed number of different service design packages available. The service design strategy needs to be developed alongside the organization’s risk appetite, as the two must be intrinsically linked.
●        It is important to make sure that all four dimensions of service management are covered within service design packages.


•        organizations and people: operating model and support matrix, training needs
•        information and technology: tooling, monitoring, data management, and vulnerability
•        partners and suppliers: appropriate contracts, service integration, critical success factors
•        value streams and processes: critical path analysis of IT service, expedited processes.
●        Develop a template which identifies the types of information needed. For example, description, guidance notes, and outcome parameters.
●        Engage with the relevant stakeholders to agree the parameters for each practice by level of service design package.
●        Develop a communications and training strategy to ensure the service design packages can be embedded effectively into the process of designing and provisioning services.
●        Embed the process of using the service design packages into value stream relating to design/transition, obtainbuild                                                                                         , and deliver/support. This would include activities suchas:


•        design checks – definition of done/requirements analysis, customer/user experience
        transition checks – warranty considerations
•        backlog items relating to service protection embedded in to tooling.


The service design needs to be embedded into the value stream for onboarding new or changing services.
For each element of the SDP, the architect would provide evidence of compliance. Where the impacted stakeholders do not approve the service, any issues that arise will need to be addressed. This will likely involve a review of which technical and service design patterns have been used in the design, and whether the original answers on the risk questionnaire considered the wider context of the IT Service and its impact on business operations appropriately. This will be an iterative process, depending on how many issues are present, and to what extent the stakeholders are satisfied by the proposed resolution.

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