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Practice_Service Desk 服务台实践

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发表于 2020-4-14 22:14:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总






关键信息

服务台实践的目的是为事件,解决和服务请求捕获需求。对于所有用户,它也应该是服务提供者的入口点和单一联系点。


注意:在某些组织中,服务台实践的主要目的是在服务提供者及其用户之间建立有效的通信接口,事件和服务请求只是通信的两个主题。在这些组织中,此实践的目的可能是:与所有用户建立一个有效的入口点和单一联系点;为事件,解决和服务请求捕获需求。组织可以并且应该根据其目标和情况调整实践目的声明和ITIL的其他建议。


与任何实践一样,此实践寻址所有服务管理四维模型。


表2.1 服务管理的尺寸及示例


服务管理的尺寸        服务台实践资源示例


组织和人员        
专用团队,有时也称为服务台


信息和技术        专用信息系统,有时也称为服务台


价值流和流程        
工作流和与用户通信的过程


合作伙伴和供应商        涉及第三方,在某些情况下为服务台
术语“ 服务台”可以表示各种类型和资源组。例如,在许多组织中,服务台被认为是职能或一个团队。与任何团队一样,服务台团队也可能参与活动的几种实践。这些可能包括服务台,事件管理,服务请求管理,问题管理,服务配置管理,关系管理惯例等。


该实践指南介绍了服务台实践。当讨论其他团队,软件工具或其他流程时,将明确指出。
服务台实践包含在服务提供者与用户进行通信的所有价值流中。它旨在确保这些通信对于所有相关方都是有效和方便的。

2.2        术语和概念        
2.2.1        沟通渠道
服务台实践涉及在用户和服务提供者之间建立有效且便捷的通信通道。通常,存在多个通道,并且需要有效的通道集成来提供无缝的和便捷的用户体验。


良好的沟通渠道使用户和服务提供者能够以一种方便各方的方式交换信息,并确保质量的信息。在此背景中,术语“方便”包括表2.2中概述的特性。


表2.2通讯通道的便利特性


“方便”的特点        说明


辅助功能        
沟通渠道应该畅通。这可能包括任何用户的语言,格式和特殊功能,无论是视觉上还是其他方面的障碍。接口可能需要特殊的应用程序和设备才能访问通信通道,因为
以及特殊技能。


保证        各方应确保沟通渠道是真实的,安全的,并遵守适用的法规,政策和规定。


可用性        
沟通渠道应该在需要的地方和时间可用。根据服务的不同,它们可能包括各种范围的移动接口(从组织到全球范围)以及可用性时间的选项(仅在内部工作时间连续)。


情境智能        
应尽可能整合沟通渠道和相关的背景信息。此信息可能包括预填充的上下文数据,通信历史记录,
用户配置文件,等等。


情感结盟        
在某些情况下,沟通渠道用于传达情绪和感觉以及事实数据。在这种情况下,服务提供者应该升级服务同理心。这通常需要人机界面,例如电话或面对面
会议。


熟识        
熟悉的沟通渠道比陌生的新沟通渠道更方便。社交媒体,论坛,电子邮件,聊天和其他通信渠道可能有效地适应了
与服务提供者联系。



集成        服务提供程序通常使用多个渠道与用户通信。此外,服务交互中可能涉及多个其他系统。这些系统应该集成在一起,以减少或消除数据条目的重复并防止信息
丢失(请参阅下面的全渠道通信定义)。


可用性        各种界面都应清晰,直观,有用且职能型。


表2.2中概述的特征类似于通常用于评估和管理质量信息的特征,例如:可用性,可靠性,可访问性,及时性,准确性和相关性。重要的是要注意,信息质量可以依赖于通信质量;这取决于信息质量。其他信息特征取决于信息来源和相关方。


服务提供者及其用户之间经常使用多个通道进行通信。多通道通信可能很方便,但是如果未集成在一起,它们也会引起混乱。提供无缝的体验和信息流动的多通道通信开发已导致全渠道通信。
定义:全渠道通信
基于跨通道共享信息并提供无缝的通信体验,跨多个通道进行统一通信。




The purpose of the service desk practice is to capture demand for incident resolution and service requests. It should also be the entry point and single point of contact for the service provider for all users.


Note: In some organizations, the main purpose of the service desk practice is establishing an effective communication interface between a service provider and its users, with incidents and service requests being just two subjects of communication. In these organizations, the purpose of this practice could be: to establish an effective entry point and single point of contact with all users; to capture demand for incident resolution and service requests. Organizations can and should adjust the practice purpose statements and the other recommendations of ITIL according to their objectives and circumstances.


As with any practice, this practice addresses all four dimensions of service management.


Table 2.1 Dimension of service management with examples


Dimension of service management        Example of service desk practice resources


Organizations and people        
Dedicated team, sometimes known as service desk


Information and technology        Dedicated information system, sometimes known as service desk


Value streams and processes        
Workflows and procedures for communications with users


Partners and suppliers        Involved third parties, in some cases known as service desk
The term ‘service desk’ can refer to various types and groups of resources. For instance, in many organizations the service desk is recognized as a function or a team of people. As with any team, the service desk team may be involved in the activities of several practices. These may include service desk, incident management, service request management, problem management, service configuration management, relationship management practices, and others.


This practice guide describes the service desk practice. When other teams, software tools, or other processes are discussed, it is clearly indicated.


The service desk practice is involved in all value streams where the service provider communicates with users. It aims to ensure that these communications are effective and convenient for all parties involved.

2.2        TERMS AND CONCEPTS        
2.2.1        Communication channels
The service desk practice involves establishing effective and convenient communication channels between users and the service provider. Usually, there are multiple channels and a need for effective channel integration to provide seamless, convenient user experience.


Good communication channels allow users and the service provider to exchange information in a way that is convenient for all parties and ensures the quality of the information. In this context, the term ‘convenient’ includes the characteristics outlined in Table 2.2.


Table 2.2 Convenient characteristic of communication channels


‘Convenient’ characteristics        Explanation


Accessibility        
Communication channels should be accessible. This may include language, format, and special features for any user who is impaired, visually or otherwise. Interfaces may require special applications and devices to access the communication channels, as
well as special skills.


Assurance        All parties should be assured that communication channels are genuine, secure, and comply with applicable regulations, policies, and rules.


Availability        
Communication channels should be available where and when they are needed. Depending on the service, they may include mobile interfaces of various ranges (from organization-only to global coverage) and options for availability time (from only within
working hours to continuous).


Contextual intelligence        
Wherever possible, communication channels and relevant contextual information should be integrated. This information may include pre-populated contextual data, communication history,
user profiles, and so on.


Emotional alignment        
In some cases, communication channels are used to communicate emotions and feeling as well as factual data. When this is the case, the service provider should promote service empathy. This often requires a human interface, such as a phone call or face-to-face
meeting.


Familiarity        
Familiar communication channels can be more convenient than new, unfamiliar ones. Social media, forums, email, chats, and other communication channels may be effectively adapted for
contacts with the service provider.



Integration        Service providers often use multiple channels to communicate with users. Additionally, multiple other systems may be involved in service interactions. These systems should be integrated to reduce or eliminate duplication of data entry and to prevent information
loss (see the definition of omnichannel communications below).


Usability        Interfaces of all kinds should be clear, intuitive, helpful, and functional.


The characteristics outlined in Table 2.2 are similar to the characteristics usually used to assess and manage the quality of information, such as: availability, reliability, accessibility, timeliness, accuracy, and relevance. It is important to note that information quality can depend on communication quality; other information characteristics depend on the information sources and relevant parties.


Multiple channels are often used for communications between a service provider and its users. Multichannel communications may be convenient, but they can also introduce confusion if they are not integrated. The development of multichannel communications to provide seamless experience and information flow has led to omnichannel communications.
Definition: Omnichannel communications
Unified communications across multiple channels based on sharing information across the channels and providing a seamless communication experience.



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