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Practice_Portfolio management 组合管理实践

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匿名  发表于 2020-4-15 10:45:47 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总




组合管理在分配,部署和管理资源方面起着重要的角色的作用
跨组织。


组合管理包含多个产品组合,包括:


●        生产和服务组合由组织管理的整套产品和服务,代表组织在其所有客户和市场空间中的承诺和投资。它还表示当前的合同承诺,新的生产和服务开发以及正在进行的改进点计划。


●        方案和项目产品组合用于管理和协调项目,确保在成本规定的时间和规格范围内达到了目标。项目产品组合还确保了项目不会重复并且不会超出商定的范围,并且确保每个项目都有可用的资源。它用于管理单个项目以及大型程序。它支持组织的生产和服务组合以及对组织的实践和服务价值系统(SVS)的改进。


●        客户组合反映了组织的承诺服务于某些服务消费者群体和市场空间。影响力可能是生产和服务组合以及项目产品组合的结构和内容。客户组合用于确保很好地理解业务结果,客户和服务之间的关系。
还可以创建投资组合来管理资源(例如:应用程序),客户组,业务细分等。组合管理背后的关键概念是相同的,无论投资组合中管理的是什么项目。如图片2.1所示,它有助于从整体资产系统获得最佳投资回报。





图片2.1 组织的产品组合可实现投资回报


组合管理实践可以应用于组织的每个级别。每个团队都应决定如何最好地在新的和正在进行的计划中分配现有或潜在资源。
组合管理实践与其他实践紧密相连,尤其是服务财务管理实践。组合管理确保对整个生命周期的资源,产品和服务进行财务监督。其中包括成本计算的评审和新计划的价值主张,以及跟踪机上项目以及实时产品和服务的财务状况。实践还确保根据各自的计划定期监视和评估当前产品的财务状况。


2.2        术语和概念
        
2.2.1        资源约束


组织只能提供有限数量的计划,项目或服务。对于某些组织而言,预算太小,无法为其所有所需的项目提供资金。约束并不总是财务上的;它们可能与资源配置有关,例如没有足够的员工或正确的技能集,也可能与时间有关,例如紧迫的期限或业务周期。约束因素增加了优先级的重要性。


组合管理实践包括识别和量化约束,并将其用于确定优先级和优化投资组合计划。


2.2.2        投资组合优先
组合管理实践的关键原则是聚焦价值。在此实践的背景中,优先级是流程,它确定在哪里投资会增加最多的价值。优先排序意味着确定哪些投资组合计划应首先获得资助,实施,暂停或退出。
优先级考虑的因素包括:



●        战略调整程度
●        资源可用性或质量
●        需要努力
●        当前投资组合及其中的相互依赖性
●        风险
●        时间和紧急度,包括延迟成本
●        经济或财务因素,包括直接和间接的收益和成本
●        需求的来源或类型,包括目标市场或消费者组
●        合规性
●        社会责任
●        创新和技术优势。


每个组织应该选择优先级准则并指定优先级练习中每个标准的权重。这些准则成为组织的组合管理方法的一部分。不同的投资组合可能具有不同的准则集或权重集。评估准则应该为单个投资组合计划以及整个投资组合定义。
组合管理实践确保针对相似的产品组合计划,一致地传达,采用和使用商定的优先级排序方法和模型。


2.2.2.1        延迟成本
进行优先级排序的有用技术是新的或改良的投资组合项目的“ 延迟成本”的估计。该技术评估了预期由于延迟而损失的收益。这既适用于投资组合的初始优先级,也适用于持续的评价以及当前投资组合项目的优先级。
延迟成本可以应用于各种级别的决策,从生产或服务组合中的生产或服务级别的大型投资,到产品或服务中特性级别的小型投资,再到运行的任务。


2.2.2.2        A / B测试
A / B测试是用于优先级排序的更快,更有效的成本收益技术之一。它涉及通过向不同类别的消费者提供不同版本的投资组合项目(例如特性或服务)来测试投资组合项目,并分析其响应。应进一步开发最受欢迎的项目(通过诸如积极反馈,下载次数,服务流量量等指标衡量)。有关A / B测试的更多信息,请参见ITIL®4:高速IT。




2.2.2.3        投资组合优化
当管理投资组合的组织通过选择最合适的投资产生最高的价值回报时,投资组合就得到了优化。
投资组合项目应进行审查并分配为以下类别之一:


●        保留根据最初的价值命题执行,具有肯定的价值实现监控报告并与组织的策略保持一致并与之相关的投资组合项目。
        推广超过价值计划实现的投资组合项目,获得比预期更好的市场份额或获得更好的市场响应,并且与组织的战略保持一致并与之相关。这些投资组合项目可能会获得额外的投资。
●        退运这些投资组合项目不再符合业务目标或策略。他们可能是
由客户或技术小组识别,但许多只能在服务组合评审期间识别。
●        替换这些投资组合项目不满足技术和职能型适用性的要求水平。一种
为了满足这些要求,需要新的投资组合项目。
●        更新或合理化这些投资组合项目仍具有价值的实现潜力,但需要对其进行更新以适应变更后的技术,运行的,市场或消费者的要求。合理化也适用于业务功能不清楚或重叠的项目组合项目。
有一种更简单的技术叫做买/持有/卖,它遵循相同的方法:


●        购买投资以改善或扩展生产
●        只要费用负担得起,请尽可能少地花钱来维护生产
●        出售投资用于淘汰,减少或更换生产。
组织选择适合他们的优先级排序方法。在组织上始终使用此方法很重要。




Portfolio management plays an important role in allocating, deploying, and managing resources
across the organization.


Portfolio management encompasses several portfolios, including:


●        Product and service portfolio The complete set of products and services that are managed by the organization, representing the organization’s commitments and investments across all of its customers and market spaces. It also represents current contractual commitments, new product and service development, and ongoing improvement plans.


●        Programme and project portfolio Used to manage and coordinate projects, ensuring that
objectives are met within time and cost constraints and to their specifications. The project portfolio also ensures that projects are not duplicated and stay within the agreed scope, and that resources are available for each project. It is used to manage single projects as well as large-scale programmes. It supports organization’s product and service portfolio and improvements to the organization’s practices and service value system (SVS).


●        Customer portfolio Reflects the organization’s commitment to serving certain service consumer
groups and market spaces. It might influence the structure and content of the product and service portfolio and the project portfolio. The customer portfolio is used to ensure that the relationship between business outcomes, customers, and services is well understood.
Portfolios can also be created to manage resources (for example: applications), customer groups, business segments, and so on. The key concepts behind portfolio management are the same regardless of the items being managed in the portfolio; it helps to achieve optimal return on the investment from a holistic system of assets, as Figure 2.1 shows.






Figure 2.1  Organization’s portfolios enable return on investments


The portfolio management practice can be applied at every level of an organization. Every team should decide how best to distribute existing or potential resources among new and ongoing initiatives.
The portfolio management practice is closely connected to other practices, especially the service financial management practice. Portfolio management ensures that fiscal oversight exists for the entire lifecycle of resources, products, and services. This includes a review of costing and value propositions for new initiatives, as well as tracking financial health for in-flight projects and live products and services. This practice also ensures that the financial health of current offerings is regularly monitored and assessed against respective plans.


2.2        TERMS AND CONCEPTS        
2.2.1        Resource constraints
Organizations can only deliver a limited number of initiatives, projects, or services. For some organizations, the budget is too small to fund all of their desired projects. Constraints are not always financial; they can relate to resourcing, such as not having enough staff or the right skill sets, or time, such as tight deadlines or business cycles. Constraining factors increase the importance of prioritization.
The portfolio management practice includes identifying and quantifying constraints and using them for prioritizing and optimizing portfolio initiatives.


2.2.2        Portfolio prioritization
The key principle for the portfolio management practice is focus on value. In the context of this practice, prioritization is a process of determining where investments will add the most value. Prioritization means identifying which portfolio initiatives should be funded and implemented first, suspended, or retired.
The factors that are considered in prioritization include:



●        degree of strategic alignment
●        resource availability or quality
●        effort required
●        current portfolio and the interdependencies within it
●        risks
●        time available and urgency, including the cost of delay
●        economic or financial factors, including direct and indirect benefits and costs
●        source or type of demand, including target markets or consumer groups
●        compliance
●        social responsibilities
●        innovation and technology advantages.


Each organization should choose prioritization criteria and specify the weight that each criterion will have in the prioritization exercise. These criteria become a part of the organization’s approach to portfolio management. Different portfolios might have different sets of criteria or weightings. Assessment criteria should be defined for a single portfolio initiative, as well as for the whole portfolio.
The portfolio management practice ensures that the agreed prioritization approach and models are communicated, adopted, and used consistently for similar portfolio initiatives.


2.2.2.1        Cost of delay
A useful technique for prioritization is the estimation of the ‘cost of delay’ of a new or improved portfolio item. This technique assesses the benefits that are expected to be lost as a result of delay. This applies to both the initial prioritization of a portfolio and the continual evaluation and reprioritization of current portfolio items.


Cost of delay can be applied to decision-making at various levels, from large investments at a product or service level within a product or service portfolio, to smaller investments at a feature level within products or services, to operational tasks.


2.2.2.2        A/B testing
A/B testing is one of the faster, more efficient cost-benefit techniques that is used for prioritization. It involves testing portfolio items by offering different versions of a portfolio item (such as a feature or service) to different groups of consumers and analysing their responses. The most popular item (measured through indicators such as positive feedback, number of downloads, volume of service traffic, and so on) should be developed further. For more on A/B testing, see ITIL® 4: High-velocity IT.




2.2.2.3        Portfolio optimization
A portfolio is optimized when the organization managing the portfolio generates the highest value return by selecting the most appropriate investments.
Portfolio items should be reviewed and assigned one of the following categories:


●        Retain Portfolio items that perform according to the initial value proposition, have positive value realization monitoring reports, and are aligned with and relevant to the organization’s strategy.



●        Promote Portfolio items that exceed the planned value realization, gain a better market share or get better market response than expected, and that are aligned with and relevant to the organization’s strategy. These portfolio items may get additional investment.
●        Retire  These portfolio items no longer meet a business objective or strategy. They may be
identified by customers or technical groups, but many will only be identified during the service portfolio review.
●        Replace  These portfolio items do not meet required levels of technical and functional fitness. A
new portfolio item is needed in order to meet these requirements.
●        Renew or rationalize These portfolio items still have value realization potential, but they need to be renewed to align with the changed technology, operational, market, or consumer requirements. Rationalization also applies to portfolio items with unclear or overlapping business functionalities.
There is a simpler technique called buy/hold/sell that follows the same approach:


●        Buy   invest in improving or extending the product
●        Hold   spend as little as possible to maintain the product, as long as the costs are affordable
●        Sell  invest in retiring, reducing, or replacing the product.
Organizations choose the prioritization approach that suits them. It is important that this approach is used consistently across the organization.

申明:
本文档由长河(微信achotsao)在机译的基础上经初步整理而成,精细化翻译工作正由ITIL先锋论坛组织的ITIL专家团队进行之中,预计将于2020年年底之前全部完成。需要下载最终翻译版本请关注微信公众号:IT管理精英圈,或访问www.itil4hub.cn  or  www.itilxf.com

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