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Practice_Service Level Management 服务级别管理实践

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发表于 2020-4-14 22:48:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总






关键信息

服务级别管理实践的目的是为服务级别设定基于业务的明确目标,并确保正确评估,监控和交付服务。
针对这些目标进行了管理。




服务级别管理实践有助于在服务提供者和服务消费者之间设置和管理质量服务的共享视图,这些视图针对双方的所有关键利益相关者。通常在协议文档中描述此共享视图,该文档可以以各种形式的形式编写。从最初的接触到现在,这既适用于预期的服务质量,也适用于实际的服务质量,涵盖了服务的产品以及整个服务关系所建议的价值。服务级别管理实践还包括服务和协议的实际服务质量和持续改进的监控和评价。


2.1        说明了实践的密钥活动。


图片2.1 服务级别管理实践的密钥活动


2.2        术语和概念
定义:服务质量
服务的全部特性与其满足规定的和
暗示需求。

为了管理服务的质量,组织通常定义指标。这些度量标准提供了特定服务的服务级别的正式定义。


定义:服务级别
一个或多个度量标准,用于定义预期的或已实现的服务质量。


要定义和管理服务级别,通常需要就相关的指标和目标值以及所实现的服务级别的度量,评价,报告和改进点的方法达成一致。通常使用服务级别协议(SLA)完成此操作。


定义:服务级别协议
服务提供者和客户之间的既有文档记录的协议标识了两者
所需的服务以及服务的预期水平。


注意:SLA可以具有多种形式和形式的形式,并且客户参与度在定义上也可能因情况而异。从广义上讲,SLA可以定义为:
服务提供者用于监视和管理质量服务的目标服务级别及其监控,度量及其报告方法的描述。
它也可以称为服务级别的公众(或外部)规范,因为它通常与客户和用户进行通信。这并不意味着客户总是参与服务级别的定义。在大量交付和消费的情况下,以预定义的开箱即用方式将服务交付给成千上万的消费者,客户通常必须接受服务提供者定义的服务级别,或者根本不使用服务。


在某些情况下,并非服务质量的所有特性都可以通过形式化的方式达成一致,测量和控制。这意味着被控制的服务级别的范围总是小于它要正式制定的服务质量的范围。相反,可以通过收集反馈来支持服务质量不能包含在服务级别中的任何方面。这增加了一个主观的观点,以验证服务的度量特征。服务级别的测量结果与相关利益相关者的充分反馈相结合,将提供服务质量的更全面的视图,并有助于为服务消费者定义和共同创建价值。它还有助于防止所谓的服务报告西瓜效应,在服务报告中,所有度量从外部看起来都是“绿色”,而在内部,服务的感知是“红色”。


为确保服务级别管理实践专注于价值,将可测量服务级别的定义和控制与相关反馈的收集和分析相结合非常重要。这在以下情况下尤其重要

如以上注释所述,客户尚未参与服务级别的定义。
2.2.1        功用和功效


定义:功用
生产或服务提供的功能可满足特定需求。功用可以概括为“ 服务的功能”,并且可以用来确定服务是否为“ 符合目的”。要拥有功用,服务必须支持消费者的性能或绩效或
从消费者删除约束。许多服务都可以做到。




定义:功效
确保生产或服务将满足约定的要求。功效可以概括为“ 服务的性能”,并且可以用来确定服务是否“适合使用”。功效通常涉及与服务使用者的需求一致的服务级别。
这可能基于正式的协议,也可能是市场营销消息或品牌图像。功效通常解决诸如服务的可用性,其容量,安全的级别和连续性等领域。可以说服务提供了可接受的保证,或者说“ 功效”,如果
满足所有已定义和商定的条件。


从定义中可以假设服务质量(和服务级别)仅指功效和功效需求。不是这种情况。服务质量和服务级别的管理应该是整体的,并且重点放在价值上。为此,应管理服务的所有相关特征,包括关联的指标,感知的区域和反馈。将职能型的管理和服务的非职能型特性分开的习惯(从需求的定义到已经实现的质量的评价)来自开发和运营团队的分离。这些特征和团队的分离通常导致对服务质量的零散和非常正式的理解。
总而言之,服务质量同时包含职能型和非职能型的服务特征,因此服务级别也应包括。


2.2.2        服务的财务可行性
通常,将服务提供者的形式责任限于约定的服务级别,而不是隐含或预期的服务质量。但是,只有不断达成协议的服务级别,并且最重要的是,让客户和用户感到满意,才能实现可持续的服务关系。该满意度以其服务体验为基础,并包括约定和暗示的服务质量。因此,服务提供者通常旨在超越商定的服务级别,以确保他们

用户和客户都很满意。但是,服务提供通常是基于商定的服务级别进行预算的,而额外的努力会导致提供者的额外费用。
为了维持有效的服务关系,服务对于服务提供者和服务消费者都应在财务上可行。这通常是赞助商的主要关注点:
●        服务消费的赞助商(定义为ITIL Foundation:ITIL 4版)要求服务消费者的服务的最优价格。
●        服务提供的赞助商(授权预算用于服务提供的角色)需要一个最佳
服务提供的成本。
这些角色可以由不同的人在不同的场景中执行:


当内部服务提供者得到更广泛的组织的补贴时,供应和消耗的发起人或赞助人可以是IT 预算的所有者。当向外部消费者提供商业服务时,服务提供预算通常由服务提供者一侧的赞助商拥有,而服务消费的发起人或赞助人是消费者一侧的授权人。应该注意的是,尽管这些是发起人最常见的角色,但角色的其他组合也是可能的。


无论服务关系模型如何,服务级别管理实践都能通过管理客户和用户的期望并就满足赞助者要求的服务级别达成一致,从而为服务的财务可行性做出贡献。它还支持服务设计和编制预算,并提供有关议定的服务级别和预期的服务质量之间的预期差距以及是否需要专用预算来解决此差距的信息。




Key message
The purpose of the service level management practice is to set clear business-based targets for service levels, and to ensure that delivery of services is properly assessed, monitored, and
managed against these targets.




The service level management practice helps to set and manage a shared view of the quality of services between the service provider and the service consumer, aimed at all key stakeholders on both sides. This shared view is usually described in an agreement document, which may be written in various levels of formality. This applies to both the expected and actual service quality, from initial contact to the present, and covers service offerings and proposed value throughout the entirety of the service relationship. The service level management practice also includes monitoring and evaluation of the actual service quality and continual improvement of the services and agreements. Figure
2.1        illustrates the key activities of the practice.


Figure 2.1  Key activities of the service level management practice


2.2        TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Definition: Service quality
The totality of a service’s characteristics that are relevant to its ability to satisfy stated and
implied needs.

In order to manage the quality of services, organizations usually define metrics. These metrics provide a formal definition of the service level of a particular service.


Definition: Service level
One or more metrics that define expected or achieved service quality.


To define and manage the service level, it is common to agree on relevant metrics and target values, as well as the approach to the measurement, evaluation, reporting, and improvement of the achieved service level. This is usually completed with the use of service level agreements (SLAs).


Definition: Service level agreement
A documented agreement between a service provider and a customer that identifies both
services required and the expected level of service.


Note: An SLA can have a variety of forms and levels of formality, and the involvement of customers in its definition can also differ from case to case. In a wider sense, an SLA can be defined as:
A description of the target service level and the approach to its monitoring, measurement, and reporting, used by a service provider to monitor and manage the quality of its services.


It can also be called a public (or external) specification of a service level, as it is usually communicated to customers and users. This does not mean that customers are always involved in the definition of the service level. In the case of mass delivery and consumption, where services are delivered to thousands or millions of consumers in a pre- defined, outofthebox                                                                                          manner, customers usually have to either accept the service levels defined by the service provider, or not use the service at all.


In some instances, not all of the characteristics of service quality can be agreed upon, measured, and controlled in a formalized way. This means that the scope of the service level which is controlled is always smaller than the scope of the service quality it aims to formalize. Any aspects of the service quality that cannot be included in the service level can instead be supported through the collection of feedback. This adds a subjective perspective to validate the measured characteristics of the services. A combination of service level measurements and sufficient feedback from relevant stakeholders will provide a more holistic view of service quality and helps to define and co-create value for the service consumer. It also helps to prevent the so-called watermelon effect for service reporting, where all metrics look ‘green’ from the outside, while on the inside the consumer’s perception of the service is ‘red’.


To make sure that the service level management practice is focused on value, it is important to combine the definition and control of the measurable service level with the collection and analysis of relevant feedback. This becomes especially important when

customers have not been involved in the definition of the service level, as described in the note above.
2.2.1        Utility and warranty


Definition: Utility
The functionality offered by a product or service to meet a particular need. Utility can be summarized as ‘what the service does’ and can be used to determine whether a service is ‘fit for purpose’. To have utility, a service must either support the performance of the consumer or
remove constraints from the consumer. Many services do both.




Definition: Warranty
Assurance that a product or service will meet agreed requirements. Warranty can be summarized as ‘how the service performs’ and can be used to determine whether a service is ‘fit for use’. Warranty often relates to service levels aligned with the needs of service consumers.


This may be based on a formal agreement, or it may be a marketing message or brand image. Warranty typically addresses such areas as the availability of the service, its capacity, levels of security, and continuity. A service may be said to provide acceptable assurance, or ‘warranty’, if
all defined and agreed conditions are met.


It is possible to assume from the definition that the service quality (and service level) only refers to the warranty and warranty requirement. This is not the case. The management of service quality and service level should be holistic and focused on value. To this end, all relevant characteristics of a service should be managed, including associated metrics, areas of perception, and feedback. The habit of separating the management of functional and non-functional characteristics of services (from the definition of requirements to the evaluation of the quality that has been achieved) comes from the separation of the development and operations teams. The separation of these characteristics and teams typically leads to a fragmented and very formal understanding of service quality.
To summarize, service quality includes both the functional and non-functional characteristics of services and therefore so should the service level.


2.2.2        Financial viability of services
It is quite common to limit the formal liability of the service provider to the agreed service level, rather than the implied or expected service quality. However, a sustainable service relationship is only possible if the agreed service level is constantly achieved and, most importantly, customers and users are satisfied. This satisfaction is based on their service experience and includes both agreed and implied service quality. Because of this, service providers often aim to exceed the agreed service level to make sure that their

users and customers are satisfied. However, service provision is often budgeted based on the agreed service level, and extra efforts result in extra costs for the provider.
To maintain an effective service relationship, services should be financially viable for both service providers and service consumers. This is usually a key concern of sponsors:


●        Sponsors of service consumption (as defined in ITIL Foundation: ITIL 4 Edition) require an optimal price of the service for the service consumer.
●        Sponsors of service provision (a role authorizing budget for service provision) require an optimal
cost of service provision.
These roles can be performed by different people in different scenarios:


When internal service providers are subsidized by the wider organization, the sponsor of both the provision and the consumption can be the owner of the IT budget. When a commercial service is provided to external consumers, the service provision budget is typically owned by sponsors on the service provider’s side, and the sponsor of the service consumption is the person authorizing it on the consumer’s side. It should be noted that, although these are the most common roles of sponsors, other combinations of roles are also possible.


Regardless of the service relationship model, the service level management practice contributes to the financial viability of services by managing customers’ and users’ expectations and agreeing on service levels that satisfy the requirements of sponsors. It also supports service design and budgeting, with information on the expected gap between the agreed service level and the expected service quality, and on any need for a dedicated budget to address this gap.


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